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Dynamic vs Static Stretching: A Tense Topic

August 30, 2018

 

Stretching before and after exercise has been a part of warm-up and cool-down routines for decades. Although, stretching has been a contentious area in recent years due, to the inconclusive research that it prevents injuries when performed before exercise.

 

In this blog we will explore the proposed benefits of stretching as well as the difference between dynamic and static stretching, providing some examples of each stretch.

 

 

STATIC STRETCHING

Static stretching is a common method of stretching where the muscle is placed on stretch by placing the attached joint at its end-range. This has the effect of increasing joint range of motion which has been proposed to improve performance by decreasing resistance during movement.  The mechanism in which how this occurs is commonly considered to be due to change in the tolerance of the muscle to stretch, as opposed to changes in the length of the muscle. However, recent findings suggest that in performance measures of running, power, agility and balance, static stretching could impair, rather than improve performance due to its potentially adverse effect on muscle contraction.

 

Despite the evidence against static stretching before performance, it still has a role in long-term increases in joint range of motion. This is a common goal in injury rehabilitation and may be desired for improvements in biomechanics, posture and muscle tone or for activities specifically requiring increased flexibility, such as gymnastics, martial arts, synchronised swimming or dance. Therefore, the research suggests, if implicated, employing static stretching as a separate training program, as opposed to before ex

 

ercise due to its potential impairments on performance. 

 

After Exercise

Static stretching has also been implemented in the past as a means to reduce muscle soreness after exercise, based on the theory that stretching can assist to restore blood flow to reduce spasm and its associated soreness. Studies have, however, since refuted this, suggesting stretching restricts blood flow to the muscle and that stretching does not have a significant effect on muscle soreness. Although it is evident more research needs to be done in this area.

 

Hamstring Stretch

 Hip Flexor Stretch

 

 

Gastrocnemius Stretch

 

DYNAMIC STRETCHING

Dynamic stretching involves stretching the muscle by facilitating movement throughout the joint range. This type of stretching has recently increased in popularity due to the rise of evidence against static stretching before exercise. The evidence largely acknowledges dynamic stretching as having a positive effect on performance, particularly of power-related movements including jumping and sprinting. This makes dynamic stretching more relevant for populations such as basketballers or runners over static stretching.

 

The positive effects of dynamic stretching are largely in part to the resemblance of dynamic stretching with sport-specific movements required in the activity/exercise. The mechanisms of which this is achieved is thought to include increased body temperature and stimulation of the nervous system facilitating increased post-stretching muscle contraction.

 

Hamstring Stretch

 

Hip Flexor Stretch

Gastrocnemius Stretch

 

Overall, in regard to stretching before exercise, dynamic stretching appears to present with fewer potential disadvantages to that of static stretching. Studies are yet to conclusively find a significant benefit of stretching after exercise for muscle recovery/soreness. When considering both dynamic and static stretching, the specific task at hand must be considered and the stretches tailored accordingly. The full extent of the effect of stretching is the subject of ongoing research.

 

For more information on stretching exercises feel free to contact us

 

 

REFERENCES

Behm, D., & Chaouachi, A. (2011). A review of the acute effects of static and dynamic stretching on performance. European Journal Of Applied Physiology, 111(11), 2633-2651. doi: 10.1007/s00421-011-1879-2

 

Fletcher IM, Anness R. The acute effects of combined static and dynamic stretch protocols on fiffty-meter sprint performance in track-and-field athletes. J Strength Cond Res. Aug 2007;21(3):784-787.

 

Guissard N, Duchateau J (2004) Effect of static stretch training on neural and mechanical properties of the human plantar-flexormuscles. Muscle Nerve 29:248–255

 

Herbert, R., & de Noronha, M. (2007). Stretching to prevent or reduce muscle soreness after exercise. Cochrane Database Of Systematic Reviews. doi: 10.1002/14651858.cd004577.pub2

 

Hough PA, Ross EZ, Howatson G. Effects of dynamic and static stretching on vertical jump performance and electromyographic activity. J Strength Cond Res.Mar 2009;23(2):507-512.

 

Manoel, M., Harris-Love, M., Danoff, J., & Miller, T. (2008). Acute Effects of Static, Dynamic, and Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Stretching on Muscle Power in Women. Journal Of Strength And Conditioning Research, 22(5), 1528-1534. doi: 10.1519/jsc.0b013e31817b0433

 

Nelson, A., Kokkonen, J., & Arnall, D. (2005). Acute Muscle Stretching Inhibits Muscle Strength Endurance Performance. The Journal Of Strength And Conditioning Research, 19(2), 338. doi: 10.1519/r-15894.1

 

Page, P. (2012). CURRENT CONCEPTS IN MUSCLE STRETCHING FOR EXERCISE AND REHABILITATION. International Journal Of Sports Physical Therapy, 7(1), 109-119.

 

Torres, E., Kraemer, W., Vingren, J., Volek, J., Hatfield, D., & Spiering, B. et al. (2008). Effects of Stretching on Upper-Body Muscular Performance. Journal Of Strength And Conditioning Research, 22(4), 1279-1285. doi: 10.1519/jsc.0b013e31816eb501

 

Yamaguchi T, Ishii K. Effects of static stretching for 30 seconds and dynamic stretching on leg extension power. J Strength Cond Res. Aug 2005;19(3):677-683.

 

Young, W., & Behm, D. (2002). Should Static Stretching Be Used During a Warm-Up for Strength and Power Activities? Strength And Conditioning Journal, 24(6), 33-37. doi: 10.1519/00126548-200212000-00006